Monday, May 25, 2020
Matthew Ridgway (March 3, 1895Ã¢â¬âJuly 26, 1993) was a US Army commander who led the United Nations troops in Korea in 1951. He later served as Chief of Staff of the US Army, where he advised against American intervention in Vietnam. Ridgway retired in 1955 and was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Ronald Reagan. Fast Facts: Matthew Ridgway Known For: Ridgway was a U.S. military officer who commanded United Nations troops during the Korean War.Born: March 3, 1895 in Fort Monroe, VirginiaParents: Thomas and Ruth RidgwayDied: July 26, 1993 in Fox Chapel, PennsylvaniaEducation: United States Military AcademySpouse(s): Julia CarolineÃ (m. 1917Ã¢â¬â1930), Margaret Wilson Dabney (m. 1930Ã¢â¬â1947), Mary Princess Anthony Long (m. 1947-1993)Children: Matthew Jr. Early Life Matthew Bunker Ridgway was born on March 3, 1895, at Fort Monroe, Virginia. The son of Colonel Thomas Ridgway and Ruth Bunker Ridgway, he was reared on Army posts across the United States and took pride in being an army brat. Graduating from English High School in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1912, he decided to follow in his fathers footsteps and applied for acceptance to West Point. Deficient in mathematics, he failed in his first attempt, but after extensive study of the subject he gained entry the following year. Ridgway was classmates with Mark Clark and two years behind Dwight D. Eisenhower and Omar Bradley.Ã Their class graduated early due to the U.S. entry into World War I. Later that year, Ridgway married Julia Caroline Blount, with whom he would have two daughters, Constance and Shirley. The couple would divorce in 1930. Early Career Commissioned a second lieutenant, Ridgway was quickly advanced to first lieutenant and then given the temporary rank of captain as the U.S. Army expanded due to the war. Sent to Eagle Pass, Texas, he briefly commanded an infantry company in the 3rd Infantry Regiment before being sent back to West Point in 1918 to teach Spanish and manage the athletic program. At the time, Ridgway was upset with the assignment as he believed combat service during the war would be critical to future advancement and that the soldier who had had no share in this last great victory of good over evil would be ruined. In the years after the war, Ridgway moved through routine peacetime assignments and was selected for the Infantry School in 1924. Rising Through the Ranks Completing the course of instruction, Ridgway was dispatched to Tientsin, China, to command a company of the 15th Infantry Regiment. In 1927, he was asked by Major General Frank Ross McCoy to take part in a mission to Nicaragua due to his skills in Spanish. Though Ridgway had hoped to qualify for the 1928 U.S. Olympic pentathlon team, he recognized that the assignment could greatly advance his career. Ridgway traveled south, where he aided in supervising free elections. Three years later, he was assigned as the military advisor to the Governor-General of the Philippines, Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. His success in this post led to his appointment to the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth. This was followed by two years at the Army War College. World War II After graduating in 1937, Ridgway saw service as the deputy chief of staff for the Second Army and later the assistant chief of staff of the Fourth Army. His performance in these roles caught the eye of General George Marshall, who had him transferred to the War Plans Division in September 1939. The following year, Ridgway received a promotion to lieutenant colonel. With the U.S. entry into World War II in December 1941, Ridgway was fast-tracked to higher command. Promoted to brigadier general in January 1942, he was made assistant division commander of the 82nd Infantry Division. Ridgway was later promoted and given command of the division after Bradley, now a major general, was sent to the 28th Infantry Division. Airborne Now a major general, Ridgway oversaw the 82nds transition into the U.S. Armys first airborne division and on August 15 was officially re-designated the 82nd Airborne Division. Ridgway pioneered airborne training techniques and was credited with turning the unit into a highly effective combat division. Though initially resented by his men for being a leg (non-airborne qualified), he ultimately gained his paratrooper wings. Ordered to North Africa, the 82nd Airborne began training for the invasion of Sicily. Ridgway led the division into battle in July 1943. Spearheaded by Colonel James M. Gavins 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment, the 82nd sustained heavy losses largely due to problems outside of Ridgways control such as widespread issues with friendly fire. Major General Matthew B. Ridgway (center), Commanding General, 82nd Airborne Division, and staff, overlooking the battlefield near Ribera, Sicily, 25 July 1943. USMHI Italy In the wake of the Sicily operation, plans were made to have the 82nd Airborne play a role in the invasion of Italy. Subsequent operations led to the cancellation of two airborne assaults and instead Ridgways troops dropped into the Salerno beachhead as reinforcements. They helped hold the beachhead and then participated in offensive operations, including breaking through the Volturno Line. D-Day In November 1943, Ridgway and the 82nd departed the Mediterranean and were sent to Britain to prepare for D-Day. After several months of training, the 82nd was one of three Allied airborne divisionsÃ¢â¬âalong with the U.S. 101st Airborne and the British 6th AirborneÃ¢â¬âto land in Normandy on the night of June 6, 1944. Jumping with the division, Ridgway exerted direct control over his men and led the division as it attacked objectives to the west of Utah Beach. The division advanced toward Cherbourg in the weeks after landing. Market-Garden Following the campaign in Normandy, Ridgway was appointed to lead the new XVIII Airborne Corps which consisted of the 17th, 82nd, and 101st Airborne Divisions. He supervised the actions of the 82nd and 101st during their participation in Operation Market-Garden in September 1944. This saw American airborne forces capture key bridges in the Netherlands. Troops from XVIII Corps later played a key role in turning back the Germans during the Battle of the Bulge that December. In June 1945, he was promoted to lieutenant general and dispatched to the Pacific to serve under General Douglas MacArthur. Arriving as the war with Japan was ending, he briefly oversaw Allied forces on Luzon before returning west to command U.S. forces in the Mediterranean. In the years after World War II, Ridgway moved through several senior peacetime commands. Korean War Appointed Deputy Chief of Staff in 1949, Ridgway was in this position when the Korean War began in June 1950. Knowledgeable about operations in Korea, he was ordered there in December 1950 to replace the recently killed General Walton Walker as commander of the battered Eighth Army. After meeting with MacArthur, who was the supreme United Nations commander, Ridgway was given latitude to operate the Eighth Army as he saw fit. In Korea, Ridgway found the Eighth Army in full retreat in the face of a massive Chinese offensive. Lieutenant General Matthew B. Ridgway, circa. 1951. Public Domain An aggressive leader, Ridgway immediately began working to restore his mens fighting spirit. He rewarded officers who were aggressive and conducted offensive operations when able. In April 1951, after several major disagreements, President Harry S. Truman relieved MacArthur and replaced him with Ridgway, who oversaw U.N. forces and served as military governor of Japan. Over the next year, Ridgway slowly pushed back the North Koreans and Chinese with the goal of re-taking all of the Republic of Koreas territory. He also oversaw the restoration of Japans sovereignty and independence on April 28, 1952. Chief of Staff In May 1952, Ridgway left Korea to succeed Eisenhower as Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, for the newly formed North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). During his tenure, he made significant progress in improving the organizations military structure, though his frank manner sometimes led to political difficulties. For his success in Korea and Europe, Ridgway was appointed U.S. Army Chief of Staff on August 17, 1953. That year, Eisenhower, now president, asked Ridgway for an assessment of possible U.S. intervention in Vietnam. Strongly opposed to such an action, Ridgway prepared a report that showed that massive numbers of American troops would be needed to achieve victory. This clashed with Eisenhower, who wished to expand American involvement. The two men also fought over Eisenhowers plan to dramatically reduce the size of the U.S. Army, with Ridgway arguing that it was necessary to retain enough strength to counter the growing threat from the Soviet Union. Death After numerous battles with Eisenhower, Ridgway retired on June 30, 1955. He went on to serve on numerous private and corporate boards while continuing to advocate for a strong military and minimal involvement in Vietnam. Ridgway died on July 26, 1993, and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. A dynamic leader, his former comrade Omar Bradley once remarked that Ridgways performance with the Eighth Army in Korea was the greatest feat of personal leadership in the history of the Army.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Project Name | IacoboniÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee Shop | Project Number | | Project Manager | Maria Muncy | Prioritization | | Owner(s) | Maria Muncy | Start Date: | 7/22/2013 | Scheduled Completion Date: | | Mission/ Purpose | What is your project going to accomplish? How does this project relate to overall goals and objectives of the company? It is part of a program or larger project? The project will create a place for children to come and enjoy their time while the parents can enjoy a cup of coffee and work. We want to make the coffee shop an environment for everyone to come to and enjoy. | | SOW | What will this project create? What is the product of the project? At a high level, how do you plan on doing the work of the project?Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦We would have to change the menu a little to add some things children would like to drink and eat. This is a business reason because we want more people to set in our shop to have their coffee. | | Project Manager and Stakeholders | Who will lead this project? Who are the major stakeholders? Maria Muncy and the lead contractor will lead the project. The customers are the major stakeholders. | | Milestones | What are the key milestone dates associated with the project?Our business needs to have this project done as soon as possible so August 1, 3013 start, November 1, 2013 half way there and February 1, 2013 project complete. | Budget | What is the order-of-magnitude budget for this project? The budget for this project will be 1.2 million being paid, half at the half way point and the other half at the end of the project. | | | User Acceptance Criteria/Quality | What are the minimum success criteria as defined by the key stakeholders? People will think that the coffee shop is too loud and crowded. | High-Level Project Assumptions | What are the assumptions on which the project is based?The assumptions are people will be happier and the business will do better. | High-Level Project Constraints | What are the major limiting factors that affect the project?Some of the limiting factors are room, time and money. | Exclusions and Boundaries | What are the boundaries of the project? What is to be included and what is to be excluded fromShow MoreRelatedbusn 412 week 6 assignment1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Case Study Report: Green Mountain Coffee Roasters and Keurig Coffee Course Ã¢â¬â Business Policy (BUSN 412) Student Name Ã¢â¬â Inderjeet Singh Subject Ã¢â¬â Assignment week 6 University Ã¢â¬â DeVry University Date Ã¢â¬â 06/14/2014 Case Study Report: Fresh Direct Company Information Company Name Ã¢â¬â Green Mountain Coffee Roasters and Keurig Coffee Website Ã¢â¬â http://www.greenmountaincoffee.com Founded in- 1981 Background/History/Company Timeline 1981- Green Mountain Coffee RoastersRead MoreCase Study Report :: Green Mountain Coffee Keurig Coffee Essays1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesName :: Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Keurig Coffee Website :: www.greenmountaincoffee.com, www.gmcr.com, www.keurig.com Industry :: Processed amp; Packaged Goods- Coffee Makers Background amp; History Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc. (GMCR) was founded in 1981 as a small cafÃ © and combined with Keurig in 2006 (About GMCR, 2004-2009). GMCR produces specialty coffee and coffee makers; Keurig is the maker of a single cup coffee maker as well as specialty teas and coffees. Keurig was foundedRead MoreSWOT Analysis: Green Mountain Coffee Roaster and Keurig Coffee Inc.2304 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagestwo companies involved in this case study are Green Mountain Coffee Roasters and Keurig Coffee Inc. They are both in the coffee industry. What is interesting is that Keurig Coffee Inc. actually started off as Ã¢â¬Å"a technology company in the coffee industry where they developed a brewer that represents a fusion of technology and designÃ¢â¬ (C36 in the book, [Dess et al, 2012]). Green Mountain Coffee RoastersÃ¢â¬â¢ website is http://www.greenmountaincoffee.com and Keurig Coffee Inc.Ã¢â¬â¢s website is http://www.keurigRead More5-Force Analysis of Keurig Brewing System by Jay Haque1 537 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAbstract Green Mountain Coffee RoasterÃ¢â¬â¢s Keurig Single Brew system is dominating the U.S. market with an overwhelming market share. Analysts expect sales of single-cup brewing systems to continue to grow in the U.S. and competitors are eyeing a piece of the pie. An analysis of KeurigÃ¢â¬â¢s current position, based on Michael E. Porters 5-Forces, highlights a number of key areas of opportunity and risk for the company. 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A limited amount of compact company resources and the constant technological advancements may prevent the company from performing to the best of its capabilities. In order to address this issue, we recommend that you investigate our recommendations to increase market share by implementing the strategies that will be discussed in this memorandum. Strategic Analysis: Strengths: WhenRead MoreStrategic Management - Green Mountain Coffee Roasters8502 Words Ã |Ã 35 Pages1. QUESTION ONE Undertake a SWOT analysis of the organization in the case. A SWOT analysis of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters reveals the following : 1.1 Strengths i. Product Consistency By utilizing state-of-the-art roasting software, GMCR is therefore able to maintain their level of product consistency, ii. Unique Products Its key success is in differentiating its coffees. The coffee beans have been carefully selected and then roasting them in small batches to ensure consistency and to maximizeRead MoreKeurig Green Mountain Essay4159 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Keurig Green Mountain Christian Derderian Nick Fazzolari Miguel Jimenez Anastasia Zavgorodni Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Industry Economic and Value Chain Analysis A. Company Competitors B. Value Chain Analysis C. FirmÃ¢â¬â¢s Market Share D. Industry-wide Technological Developments E. Economic Analysis F. FirmÃ¢â¬â¢s Business Strategy III. Financial Analysis of the Firm A. Assess Short-term Liquidity B. Critique of Capital Structure and Long-term SolvencyRead MoreMarketing Strategy For Single Serve Coffee Products1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIssue: Throughout the case, it becomes clear that competition may be hindering your product from leading the market. A limited amount of compact company resources and the constant technological advancements may prevent the company from performing to the best of its capabilities. In order to address this issue, we recommend that you investigate our recommendations to increase market share by implementing the strategies that will be discussed in this memorandum. Strategic Analysis: Strengths: WhenRead MoreGreen Mountain Coffee1353 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBACKGROUND/HISTORY Green Mountain Coffee Roasters (GMCR) started as a small cafÃ © in Waitsfield, Vermont in the year of 1981. It was in 1993 that the company went public and acquired the early phase of Keurig Incorporated Inc, and then completed the acquisition in 2006. (Unknown.( 2004). Gmcr.Retrieved from http://www.gmcr.com/about-GMCR.html) Once these two companies combined it made the way we drink beverages different than ever before in both the home and office. According to GMCRÃ¢â¬â¢s website
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Stereotyping and ethnocentrism shares similar themes, but are separated from an enormous distinction that which can lead from a tasteless joke to genocide. Stereotyping is simply an overall widespread generalization. They are formed from second hand information from close community member that use outdated information or are not an expert with that particular culture/community. Stereotypes are usually formed in situations when a person would suffer from information overload and in some cases, can accurately capture cultures or even celebrated within them (Neuliep, 2017, 191). Ethnocentrism takes this idea one step further. It is when one will view a particular people through their first perspective, without the want to understand theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They are rarely casted as lead roles and are usually support characters to the lead actor. Male actors are always portrayed as the nerdy side kick, doctors, or assistants. Their roles are weak and desexualized, as demonstrated by Wai Choy character in mean girls. If they are able to get a masculine role, they are either a Kung Fu warrior or an evil villain that is hell-bent on destroying western civilization. Women actors on the other hand are over sexualized; as they most commonly portrayed as sex workers. If they are able to steer clear of a role as a prostitute, they play roles of quiet, submissive, and feeble characters (Levin, 2017). The film Ã¢â¬Å"Full Metal JacketÃ¢â¬ prominently showcases this stereotype as a Vietnamese sex worker says, Ã¢â¬Å"me love you long timeÃ¢â¬ to a man in the United States military is a famous example of this exploration (Nittle). This is creating a great impact because our society as a whole looks at the people within the entertainment industry and the content it produces as examples of how we want to be. This creates a box for the youth of Asian cultures whether in the U.S. or elsewhere if that is their only example. Vietnamese/Asian Culture in the American News Even in 2017, our country is still plagued with tasteless stereotyping that even makes its way onto our news. An example of this was by Fox News on the Ã¢â¬Å"OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly FactorÃ¢â¬ hosted by Jesse Watters. Watters did a street interview segment on the streets of New YorkShow MoreRelatedStereotyping And Ethnocentrism1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Cultural Communication values and Communication Challenges in Muslims Stereotyping and ethnocentrism both have concepts that are intertwined in some type of way in society. Both concepts of stereotyping and ethnocentrism has been identified as being superior, dogmatic, bigotry, and can be harmful and hurtful to the human spirit. Although stereotyping and ethnocentrism attitudes are different in ways of harmfulness, but they are both problems in our society today, and that needs to be addressed andRead MoreComparing Stereotyping And Ethnocentrism1557 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStereotyping and ethnocentrism both have concepts that are intertwined in some type of way in society. Both concepts of stereotyping and ethnocentrism has been identified as being superior, dogmatic, bigotry, and can be harmful and hurtful to the human spirit. Although stereotyping and ethnocentrism attitudes are different in ways of harmfulness, but they are both problems in our society today, and that needs to be addressed and brought to attention. In this essay, it targets to explai n and makeRead MoreCultural Awareness Project : Ethnocentrism1723 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHi this is Brittney Del Pizzo and today for my cultural awareness project I will be discussing ethnocentrism in the imaging department. My objectives for the presentation is to explain how you can avoid ethnocentrism in the imaging department and to also explain how ethnocentrism can lead to stereotyping and how this can further have a negative impact on the department. I want to begin by discussing some general definitions so that you have a better understand of the topics that I am going toRead MoreEthnocentrism Is A Basic Attitude Expressing The Belief That One? S Own Culture Essay1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesETHNOCENTRISM Ethnocentrism is a basic attitude expressing the belief that one?s own ethnic group or one?s own culture is superior to other ethnic groups or cultures, and that one?s cultural standards can be applied in a universal manner. The term was first used by the American sociologist William Graham Sumner (1840?1910) to describe the view that one?s own culture can be considered central, while other cultures or religious traditions are reduced to a less prominent role. Ethnocentrism is closelyRead MorePrivacy, Time Orientation, And Gender Roles1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstereotypes, ethnocentrism, and racism is discussed. People tend to use these words collectively to describe racism but there are differences. Stereotypes are ideas about a certain group of people based on things such as sex, race, age, or profession. Ethnocentrism is the biased belief that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s group is more worthwhile than anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s group. Racism is the belief that one racial group is superior to another. All of these words relate to each other but cannot be used interchangeably. Stereotyping is somethingRead MoreImproving Intercultural Communication Skills By Learning About Other Peoples Cultures, Behaviors, And Communication907 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescross-cultural relations. Technology, trade, business and services require inter-cultural communication and not knowing the strategies and aspects of different cultural communications will lead to many problems. Some of which my book mentions are ethnocentrism, stereotyping and prejudice. Having these problems a society would not get along with one another and misunderstanding can devastate relationships. As I mention earlier, different approaches can be used to develop intercultural communications, these skillsRead MoreLanguage and Culture1039 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescommunication gap can be much greater. Communication barriers including ethnocentrism, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, play major roles in understanding another culture. Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own cultural way of thinkin g is superior to all other cultures. It becomes a barrier in intercultural communication when and individual refuses to believe that another cultures beliefs have any value. Ethnocentrism prevents one from seeing another individuals point of view and greatlyRead MoreMovie Analysis : Gladiator 917 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand Commodus when they conspire to have Commodus killed. All of these are examples of questioning the traditional view of inequality. Five concepts that helped me understand the movie were: Social groups, Gender roles, Social facts, Stereotyping, and Ethnocentrism. First social groups helped me understand the movie because I could see the groups which were the Roman Empire, the slaves, and the gladiators. They were as clear as day and I could see how they all interacted with one another on a consistentRead MoreRacial Prejudice : What Causes It?1566 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbackgrounds. The key point of prejudice is that it can be both nonconscious and automatic assumptions, since prejudice is a psychological cause. A survey in 2011 revealed that 52% of non-Hispanic whites expressed anti-Hispanic attitudes, proving that ethnocentrism is present on a daily basis. Subconscious evaluations are often made in regards to other cultures this is based on the practices of your own culture and personal experience. Religious accommodations will lead to less racist attitudes and prejudicesRead MoreEthnocentrism And Its Effect O n Society1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages What is ethnocentrism, and in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world is ethnocentrism still in existence; if so why. So, what is ethnocentrism, itÃ¢â¬â¢s simply making judgment as to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s race or culture as to their beliefs, values, and customs to which they believe in; or what constitutes their lifestyles. In other words, believing that own race is superior over their own and thinking their better than anyone else; or above the rest (as to race); while judging their existence as to how we portray them. However, this belief
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Perform a Country analysis and assessment of a new emerging Market where rapid GDP growth has created attractive Investment Opportunities. Answer: Introduction Country analysis refers to the detailed evaluation and interpretation of a countrys social, political and economic environment. This is helpful for the investors in the financial market. The following report addresses the country analysis of Russia in respect of the emerging market of textile and apparel industry. It focuses on the general overview of the country and detailed analysis of various social, economic and political factors, which influence the growth of the economy, scope of emerging markets, and level of FDI. The factors for competitive advantage, potential and opportunities of FDI, trade policies, foreign currency and exchange market, and recommendations for the scope of investment in the textile industry will be discussed in this report. Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is the biggest country in the world by the surface area, spanning over 11 time zones, and it is the 9th most populous country, with more than 144 million of people by March 2016 (Neumann 2016). The European western region of the country is more populous and more developed compared to the eastern region. The history of Russia is quite old and over the millennium, the country has gone through major political, social and economic changes. After the Russian Revolution, the Soviet Union was the biggest socialist state in the world. It played a major role in the allied powers in World War II and became the rival of United States in the cold war. The Soviet era witnessed major technological accomplishments of the last century. However, the Union or USSR collapsed in 1991 due to many radical reforms by then president, Mikhail Gorbachev, and the new Russia was born (Kaiser 2017). The economy of Russia holds the 12th position among the largest economies by nominal GDP and 6th by PPP in 2015 (Neumann 2016). The country is one of the market leaders in the production of natural gas and oil. It is part of many economic and social councils of the world. PESTL analysis of Russia PESTL is a market analysis tool, which helps to evaluate the external forces influencing the business and operation of a nation or any organization. PESTL stands for political, Economic, Social, Technological and Legal factors, affecting the external forces of a nation or an organization (Shabanova et al. 2015). The PESTL analysis for Russia is explained below. Political: Russia maintains an open foreign relationship strategy. The country witnessed economic and political turmoil when it got defeated in Afghanistan and the economy was badly affected. The government worked hard to regain stability and currently the system has become economically and politically stable. It has relationships with 191 countries and embassies in 144 countries. However, there is no political freedom in Russia, even though it is a federation and the corruption rate is very high (Vovchenko, Kochka and Pogorelenko 2015). Economic: The economy is growing and expected to reach $3.18 billion GDP by 2018 (Liuhto, Sutyrin and Blanchard 2016). The strong resource sector is the backbone of the economy. However, the corruption and high crime rate in the country discourages the investors for investing in the country, making the financial market vulnerable. Russia has the largest agricultural area and produces more crops than many nations, and maximum of crops gets exported to Asia and Europe. The economy is largely dependent on the price of oil. However, the textile industry in Russia is not developed. The country imports apparels from South East Asia (Shabanova et al. 2015). Social: Russia has a capitalist social structure. There were many social problems, such as, income inequality, high crime rate, high corruption, high death rate, and low living standards. However, the situation is improving with the government intervention (Wirtschafter 2015). Technological: Technology is one of the strengths of the country. When the technological revolution started, Russia became a pioneer in this, especially in space science. The first man in space was a Russian. The technological advancements such as, Nanotechnology and Rosnano, and in IT fields, manufacturing of weapons, and in the fields of mathematics, chemistry, aerospace engineering have contributed significantly in the development of the country (Aslund 2013). Legal: Russian jurisdiction is strong, although people have less political freedom. The government has brought about new legislative reforms in the country to attract investors in the country. The textile and apparel industry is the new emerging market, which has a big scope in the country. With a substantial amount of investments in this sector, it has a scope of huge growth. The industry can focus on the PESTL analysis of the country and can take actions accordingly. Factor endowments creating competitive advantage Russia has been endowed with huge amount of natural resources, such as, oil and natural gas. This leads to low energy prices. Relatively educated work force is another factor leading to competitive advantage. Hence, the reserve of natural resources and raw materials, lower prices of oil and educated work force are the factors for competitive advantage and in the next few years, Russia needs to improve the level of competency through development of skills and competency. These are favorable for the development of manufacturing industry (Series 2014). The textile and apparel industry is one type of manufacturing industry. The lower prices of energy and raw materials, the huge amount of agricultural land and skilled labor can help in the growth of this industry. Russia can easily grow cotton and develop the industry. The conditions of the textile manufacturing plants can be improved and it can produce apparel within the country, rather than importing from other countries (Hansen 2014). However, the economic and international relations factors, such as, exchange rate with other countries should be made favorable. The investors should feel confident about investing in Russia. The government must impose some protection for the domestic producers and thereby encouraging the improvement in the factors for competitive advantage (Kalotay 2015). Foreign currency and foreign exchanges influence The foreign currencies and exchange rate play a major role in the development and shaping of the economy of a nation. The exchange rate is the price of a countrys currency in terms of the currency of another country (Gabaix and Maggiori 2015). Hence, there are two components in the exchange rate, one is the domestic currency and the other is the foreign currency. For international trade, exchange rate is the most important part. It directly affects the export and import of a country. When the Russian Ruble is stronger compared to other currencies, the imports become cheaper and exports become costlier (Ghosh, Ostry and Chamon 2016). The major trading partners of Russia are Italy, Germany, China, Poland, Turkey, UK, USA, Switzerland and Finland. It also has trading partnerships with the countries in South East Asia for the imports of textiles. The other importing products are machineries, vehicles, food, chemical products, consumer goods etc. (Hameed and Rose 2016). The developed industries are machinery construction, energy and fuel, chemical and petrochemical, metallurgy, and agriculture. Thus, the textile industry is not developed yet, rather it is an emerging market. The foreign exchange is a major contributor in the development of the industries in Russia. When the currency appreciated due to high exchange rate, the global investors become interested to invest their money in the hope of higher return (Paw?ta and Miko?ajczyk 2016). Hence, the textile industry would be benefitted if it receives foreign direct investment from global investors. The amount of the investment is dependent on the exchange rate. If t he exchange rate is high in favor of Russia, the Ruble will appreciate and the investors will get higher return from their investments in Russia. The textile industry of Russia can develop with the help of the foreign direct investment. When the industry and domestic market will be developed, the country can reduce the textile imports (Hansen 2014). Existing trade policies, systems, barriers and incentives During the existence of USSR, two main trade policies were state monopoly on the foreign trade and tough protectionism (Makeeva and Chaplygina 2015). After 1991, Russia has adopted extremely liberal principles for establishment of free market. It had started trade with the developed western countries. Russia has trade agreements with European Union, and has membership in World Trade Organization (WTO). It is the 3rd trading partner of EU and EU is the 1st trading partner of Russia (Kuznetsov and Mezhevich 2016). The country has imposed specific tools such as import quota and export quota, import and export licensing, technical regulations in the international trade policies. It also has formulated policies for service trade, although those are not rigid apart from the currency regulation. The new agreement between EU and Russia focuses on building a comprehensive framework for the bilateral trade relations, along with stable and balanced rules for trade and investments. EU is the maj or FDI provider for Russia, by providing almost 75% of the total FDI inflow (Ec.europa.eu 2017). The trade barriers are mostly faced by United States companies while doing business in Russia. They face many tariff and non tariff barriers during exports. Russia banned US agricultural products and food items in 2014 after the annexure of Crimean peninsula. In the financial sector, there is a serious limitation for the foreign companies to access all the financial services in the country. The inefficient banking sector and underdeveloped financial sector are major obstacles towards economic growth of Russia. The restrictions on foreign capital investment and lack of competition in these sectors possess barriers to growth (European Commission 2016). The Russian government has started providing tax incentives and subsidies for investment. It also provides incentives for exports. This is a step towards trade liberalization. Existing level of FDI The FDI inflow in Russia was highest in the year 2008 at 74.8 billion USD and then declined. It again shot up to 69.2 billion USD in 2013 due to the transaction between BP and Rosneft, and declined very sharply to 22 billion USD and 6.5 billion USD in 2014 and 2015 respectively. The rapid fall in FDI inflow in 2014 pushed down the country to the 16th position in FDI inflows in the world from 5th position in 2013. The slump in FDI inflow occurred due to the influence of the conflict in Ukraine, poor climate for investments, introduction of the sanction plans, and downfall of the overall economy due to falling prices of oil (cbr.ru 2017). This was the first year when outward FDI flow exceeded the inward FDI flow in Russia. In 2015, the fall in FDI was 92% from that in 2014. However, the inflow increased by 62% from 2015 and reached 19 billion USD, due to privatization of the Rosneft company (santandertrade.com 2017). (Source: World Bank 2017) (Source: World Bank 2017) The share of FDI is very low in the GDP of Russia, only 1.5%, in the view of the growth potential of the economy (cbr.ru 2017). The FDI mostly comprises of working capital investments. In the recent years, the country has adopted many reform schemes, but corruption, administrative problems and uncertainties about regional stability have posed significant challenges. The FDI inflow is not expected to improve as long as the conflict in Ukraine and enduring problems of the governing system continue. To maintain a balance, the capital outflow should be reduced. From the FDI data of the UNCTAD and Central Bank of Russia, it is found that the major FDI inflow was in trade and repair of vehicles, 28.3%, followed by manufacturing (23.9%), financial activities and insurance (13.9%), mining and quarrying (13%) and real estate (4.3%) (unctad.org 2017). Thus, textile industry can establish its position to gain the foreign support. If the government shifts its focus to develop the textile industr y, the FDI inflow can happen in that sector and can contribute in the development of this sector, as well as of the economy. (Source: unctad.org 2017) Recommendations To overcome the challenges, it can be recommended that, Russia should promote the technological modernization of the textile industry and the economy through the facilitation of advanced technologies and equipment from abroad. It should expand the usage of the customs and the tariffs for exports, which includes the reduction of duties on the raw materials and equipment for producing export goods and establishment of special zones for processing of export products, and should take measures to eliminate export restrictions in the international market. Russia should adopt measures to increase the level of FDI in the textile industry and reduce the financial regulations to encourage the investors (Makeeva and Chaplygina 2015). In the end, it can be concluded that, the Russian economy is still recovering from the financial crisis of 2008-2009. Although the level of FDI has been improving after the sharp downfall in 2014, the country needs to adopt more liberal policies for increasing the level of foreign investment in the country. The PESTL analysis describes the economic, social, political, technological and legal scenario of the country. The existing level of FDI is 19 billion USD although, the textile sector does not receive any foreign capital. The textile industry is not yet developed and the country imports from the South East Asia. It is an emerging market, where there is a huge opportunity for potential FDI. References Aslund, A., 2013.How capitalism was built: the transformation of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. Cambridge University Press. cbr.ru, 2017.Statistics | External Sector Statistics | Bank of Russia. [online] Cbr.ru. Available at: https://www.cbr.ru/Eng/statistics/?PrtId=svs [Accessed 19 Aug. 2017]. Ec.europa.eu, 2017.Russia - Trade - European Commission. [online] Ec.europa.eu. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/countries-and-regions/countries/russia/ [Accessed 19 Aug. 2017]. European Commission, 2016.Trade and Investment Barriers and Protectionist Trends. [online] trade.ec.europa.eu. Available at: https://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/june/tradoc_154665.pdf [Accessed 19 Aug. 2017]. Gabaix, X. and Maggiori, M., 2015. International liquidity and exchange rate dynamics.The Quarterly Journal of Economics,130(3), pp.1369-1420. Ghosh, A.R., Ostry, J.D. and Chamon, M., 2016. Two targets, two instruments: monetary and exchange rate policies in emerging market economies.Journal of International Money and Finance,60, pp.172-196. Hameed, A. and Rose, A.K., 2016. Exchange rate behavior with negative interest rates: Some early negative observations. Hansen, P.F.B., 2014.Determinants of net FDI inflow to a cluster of Central and Eastern European countries(Master's thesis, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, s). Kaiser, R.J., 2017.The Geography of Nationalism in Russia and the USSR. Princeton University Press. Kalotay, K., 2015. The impact of the new ruble crisis on Russian FDI. Kuznetsov, S.V. and Mezhevich, N.M., 2016. Industry of Russia: external factors of internal modernization.St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University Journal. Economics, (1). Liuhto, K., Sutyrin, S.F. and Blanchard, J.M.F. eds., 2016.The Russian Economy and Foreign Direct Investment. Taylor Francis. Makeeva, A. and Chaplygina, A., 2015.Russian Trade Policy. [online] Center for Environment and Sustainable Development. Available at: https://trade.ecoaccord.org/2015/trade_policy_engl.pdf [Accessed 19 Aug. 2017]. Mishra, A. and Agarwal, A., 2017. Impact of FDI on Economic Growth and Employment: A Study of (Brics) Nations. Neumann, I.B., 2016.Russia and the idea of Europe: a study in identity and international relations. Taylor Francis. Paw?ta, E. and Miko?ajczyk, B., 2016. Areas for Improving the innovation performance of the textile industry in Russia.Fibres Textiles in Eastern Europe, (1 (115)), pp.10-14. santandertrade.com, 2017.Foreign investment in Russia. [online] En.portal.santandertrade.com. Available at: https://en.portal.santandertrade.com/establish-overseas/russia/foreign-investment [Accessed 19 Aug. 2017]. Series, F.P.B., 2014. Governance Quality as a Determinant of FDI: the Case of Russian Regions. Shabanova, L.B., Ismagilova, G.N., Salimov, L.N. and Akhmadeev, M.G., 2015. PEST-Analysis and SWOT-Analysis as the most important tools to strengthen the competitive advantages of commercial enterprises.Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences,6(3), p.705. unctad.org, 2017.unctad.org | Country Fact Sheets 2017. [online] Unctad.org. Available at: https://unctad.org/en/Pages/DIAE/World%20Investment%20Report/Country-Fact-Sheets.aspx [Accessed 19 Aug. 2017]. Vovchenko, N.G., Kochka, V.A. and Pogorelenko, N.S., 2015. PESTLE Analysis. SBERBANK Russia. - ( ), (28), pp.99-101. Wirtschafter, E.K., 2015.Social Identity in Imperial Russia. Northern Illinois University Press. World Bank, 2017.Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP). [online] Data.worldbank.org. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.WD.GD.ZS [Accessed 19 Aug. 2017].
Thursday, April 9, 2020
Confucianism is a traditional form of ethics that was developed among the Chinese people during antiquity. Confucius, a Chinese teacher, taught his followers various things about living in a society (Harwood 52). Other influential people such as Jesus of Nazareth did their teachings in a style similar to his.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Differences Between Confucianism and Daoism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, Confucius lived more than five hundred years before Jesus of Nazareth. Confucianism holds a belief that all humans can be molded through teaching to improve their conduct and productivity in the society (Harwood 54). Confucianism does not qualify to be considered a religion since it is not a belief system. It is an ethical system, which that demands people sacrifice themselves for their society. This ideology formed the basis of successive Chinese social and political structures. Today, this ideology forms the basis of the Chinese communist government, an authority much different from other communist setups. On the other hand, Chinese teachers developed Daoism much later during antiquity, at around 100 BC (Brine 3). Daoism is a philosophical field with a religious aspect. It is also known as Taoism, an older term. This philosophical field includes religious teachings, spiritualism, physical wellbeing, and societal norms (Hu Allen 4). It is also deeply integrated into the Chinese culture. Daoism was developed for individual practice rather than for communal purpose. There are several differences between Daoism and Confucianism (Brine 7). Confucianism is a hierarchal philosophy where the government is highly regarded. According its teachings, the authorities are for the good of the society. For this reason, all men in the society are required to assist the authorities in the administration of the state. In addition, human beings are supreme in the world according to Conf ucianism (Harwood 56). All people are expected to conduct themselves properly through humility and obedience. Furthermore, people are expected to educate themselves and maintain order in the society.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, Daoism has little regard for communal practices. It does not integrate the individual into the social structure (Hu Allen 3). Moreover, it does not support any form of hierarchal order in the society. According to Daoism, the individual is supreme. For this reason, it is not possible to form any kind or social order using Daoism. Art and skill are important aspects of practice of Daoism, particularly because it focuses on the enhancement of the individual. Daoism defines Confucianism as a distortion of human values. Daoism discourages communal practices since they are against any form of individualism. For Daoism, it is best to understa nd oneself since individualism is the true human nature. Taoists consider hierarchal society to be a oppressive system built due to greed. Structures such as the military are evil creations of acquisitive people according to Daoism (Hu Allen 10). Confucianism describes how a people should relate to one another. The relationship between a master and his followers is clearly defined. In addition, the manner in which values are passed from one generation to another is also defined for the sake of maintaining order (Harwood 58). On the other hand, Daoism encourages focus on individual development. It denounces any acquisitive moves made by the state or an individual. According to Daoism, every individual must understand oneself. Thus, the virtues of tradition and norms that are passed from one generation to another by ethical systems such as Confucianism are disruptive. Scholars, who applied their knowledge of philosophy and political ethics to create a basis for a society, developed C onfucianism. Rituals are important in Confucianism although the system it does not qualify to be considered a religion. On the other hand, the founders of Daoism were skilled in art (Jixu 9). Thus, they focused on developing ways in which an individual could adapt to nature. This is the reason why martial arts are one of the core practices in strict Daoism.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Differences Between Confucianism and Daoism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When Confucianism was developed, it considered maintenance of order in the society to be supreme. Order had to be obtained through all means including use of force. Thus, for Confucianism everyone must behave in a certain ethical way or be compelled to do so by the system. For this reason, Confucianism is regarded a tyrannical system based on belief by (Daoism Jixu 6). Confucianism encourages achievement through tedious effort and force given that the activities carried out to achieve a certain feat are done according to a certain defined ethical procedure (Harwood 60). On the other hand, Daoism encourages use of minimum effort to achieve. Use of clever tactics is encouraged to avoid strain. Instead of trying to find a solution to the apparent problem, Daoism encourages people to investigate the cause of a problem and remove it. Thus, results are obtained trough minimum effort. Confucianism focused on family, and it required people to observe rules within the family. Responsibilities of each member of the family are to be observed for the sake of prosperity of the society. These rules and responsibilities are to be observed by every member of the society regardless of rank or status. This way, human beings can dominate all other creatures and other aspects of creation. In contrast, Daoism encourages people to isolate themselves physically and spiritually to individual confines. This explains the development of monasteries for mon ks who believed in Daoism. In addition, Daoism teaches that humans should be humble, and should consider themselves one of the lesser creations in the world. Inaction is noble according to Taoism. It encourages the use of least force to achieve any objective. Since order is important to Confucianism, planning of activities is also a requirement for success. Every activity has to be carried out according to plan and at a definite predetermined moment. All ethics to be observed in performing a specific task are considered in the plan. On the other hand, Daoism encourages spontaneous action. A person should react to the situation in the environment according to the nature of the present problem. One should avoid premeditated actions according to Daoism. Thus, in Daoism the difference between good and bad is ill defined. The nature of an action depends on the present circumstances.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Confucianism is considered a promoter of violence in some instances. It is the responsibility of the citizens to expand their territory and acquire wealth for it. To a Confucian, the state is the guardian of every individual, and should be protected (Slavicek 45). On the other hand, Daoism encourages peace and respect for oneself. It is trough this belief that one is able to avoid war and destruction. In fact, the founders of Taoism referred to the masters of the state as robbers, due to their acquisitive preferences. Finally, there is the Confucian belief that morals can be forced on an individual. Through training, teaching, or rule of law, good morals are maintained within individual actions and even within the larger society (Slavicek 54). This is an ethical practice adopted from traditional practices. In contrast, Daoism maintains that there is no universal practice for any discipline. All actions should have an intrinsic motivation within the individual. The individual develop s morals instantaneously as he or she goes about all activities in life according to Daoism. Confucianism and Daoism present two complex realms of moral practice. Neither of the two can be describe as a religion. While Confucianism is an ethical system, Daoism is spiritualism that is not built around any belief in a deity. Followers of Confucius, the primary founder of Confucianism, tried to turn him into a form of a supernatural deity in quest for gratification that religion offers (Slavicek 57). However, Confucius cautioned them against developing a baseless belief in a human deity. Due to ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢ insistence that he was not a deity, Confucianism lacked the religious aspect of a belief system. That is why Confucianism is purely an ethical system. In contrast, Daoism incorporates spiritualism as part of its methods of finding solutions. Meditation is an important practice for Daoism, and is used to find solutions for problems, since every problem as its own unique solution . Although Daoism has a spiritual aspect, it does not qualify to be classified a religion due to the influence of craft and physical skills in its practice. Thus, both Daoism and Confucianism are not religions. The two moral systems have one common goal, and that is prosperity of the people. However, their approaches to the issue are sharply antagonistic. Works Cited Brine, Rebecca. Ã¢â¬Å"Taoism and Ink Brush Painting.Ã¢â¬ philosophy of Taoism 1.4 (2011): 1-10. Print. Harwood, Larry. Ã¢â¬Å"Sagely Wisdom in Confucianism.Ã¢â¬ Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 31.1 (2012): 56-62. Print. Hu, Hsiao, and William Cully Allen.Taoism. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2005. Print. Jixu, Zhou. Ã¢â¬Å"Confucius and Lao Zi: Their Differing Social Foundations and Cultures.Ã¢â¬ Sino-Platonic Papers 33.4 (2001): 2-17. Print. Slavicek, Louise Chipley. Confucianism. San Diego, Calif.: Lucent Books, 2002. Print. This essay on Differences Between Confucianism and Daoism was written and submitted by user DannyRand to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Families of the Forest Essays Families of the Forest Essay Families of the Forest Essay ANTH 418 Final Paper This paper will be discussing the ethnography by Allen Johnson titled Families of the forest. The ethnography describes the Matsigenka people of Shimaa that live in the Peruvian Amazon. The paper will examine the Matsigenka culture, the needs and resources of the culture, and proposed projects to meet the needs of the culture. The Matsigenka of Shimaa live in isolation along river valleys and forested mountains in the Peruvian Amazon (Johnson,1999, p. 24). They live in small villages of about 7 to 25 people, that make up three to five nuclear family households (Johnson, 1999, p 3). The Matsigenka prefer to live in these hamlets and avoid interacting with people outside of their immediate family. The Matsigenka live a family level society and this helps them to avoid being exploited or to encounter enemies (Johnson, 1999, p. 6). Their isolated hamlets are very self-sufficient; Ã¢â¬Å"good land for horticulture is ample, however, and the low population density and widely scattered small settlements has meant only minimal competition between family groups for what wild foods do existÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 21). They live off of fishing, foraging and horticulture and the most important food to the Matsigenka is insect larvae. This provides them with protein and dietary fats, which they can get year round from moths, butterflies, beetles, bees and wasps (Johnson, 1999, p. 36). The cultural values of the Matsigenka are not to far from that of Western culture. Much of their religious beliefs are stemmed from folklore and spirits which promote proper behaviors within the group. They can be calm, quiet, gentle, but also mean, aggressive, and violent. They might be less sociable in large groups, but Ã¢â¬Å"they are more courteous and thoughtful in individual interactions. They are less attracted to the lure of commerce and new value systems. Their commitment to freedom of the family unit is truly remarkableÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 50). The Matsigenka are a people that are at their happiest when left alone from outsiders and in their isolation. Much of their happiest in isolation stems from the fear of outsiders bringing in infectious diseases, which happened in the 1950s and 1960s when they first encountered Peruvians and Euro-Americans (Johnson, 1999, p. 75). They maintain societal standards for their hamlets that require independence and being able to live peacefully within a group. : They do not have or give proper names to one another and when they do name a person it is usually referring to a deformity or amusing incident (Johnson, 1999, p. 20). Ã¢â¬Å"Somehow individual men and women must be highly self-reliant, motivated to do the necessary thing according to their own judgment with little encouragement (or interference) from others, and yet at the same time be generous in the family and avoid the impulsive expressions especially of sex, aggression and greed that can shatter even the strongest interpersonal bonds in closely-cooperating family groupsÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 10). Ã¢â¬Å"Courtship is generally open and a topic of delighted conversation at large. For many couples, courtship is a more or less public expression of mutual interest as they test the possibility of marriageÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 120). A married couple within the Matsigenka culture have established roles, they are partners with skills in separate areas of surviving. They seek to m arry well and make sure to not marry a lazy person. They think that this will lead to an unequal marriage and the lazy person will always be dissatisfied (Johnson, 1999, p. 121). Matsigenka husbands and wives spend much time together in evident harmony and enjoyment of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s company. We frequently find them sitting side by side at home, working quietly at some task, talking and laughing together. At times they become playful and giggle or wrestle eroticallyÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 120). Anger does not play a large role in their marriages, but it does happen occasionally when there are beer feasts and the men become drunk. The men may even beat their wives who in return will runaway to the home of their brother or father. The Matsigenka understand that intercourse between a man and woman is what leads to pregnancy and that the woman always knows who the father of that infant is (Johnson, 1999, p. 78). They do practice abortions and infanticide if the child is not wanted or is believed to not be the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s baby. Abortions are used if the mother is a widow or already has enough young children, and it is considered the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s choice (Johnson, 1999, p. 82). In early childhood, Ã¢â¬Å"the matsigenka overtly do little to hasten a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Their style is best described as a gradual raising of expectations. They do not cajole a child to rise up and toddle toward them, but they welcome her when she doesÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 85). The child learns responsibility from interacting with the mother. The families feel they need to tame the willful child, so that the family can survive and multiply (Johnson, 199, p. 78). Ã¢â¬Å"Matsigenka siblings are close and affectionate. They spend most of their childhood in each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s company, and interact seldom with other children. This is partly because there may be few other children around, but it is also a reflection of the nuclear-family centeredness of Matsigenka behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 14). Some hamlets send their children to school. The school is about an hour walk each way for most children. Ã¢â¬Å"The school acts as both a magnet and a repellent for Matsigenka households. Attraction to the school, for trade goods, medicines, and a general sense of security comes into conflict with many of their most basic preferences abo ut where and how to live best. It is these conflicts that account for the aversion many Matsigenkas have toward school communitiesÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 197). When reading the ethnography by Allen Johnson there are a few specific needs that would benefit the Matsigenka people of Shimaa. When assessing the needs of the Matsigenka community it begins with gathering the information from the ethnography and then applying it to the community problems. The first need involves their drinking water and the access to it. The Matsigenka get their water from the river closest to their hamlets but because of their desire for isolation and the danger, they do not live close to the river banks. When they are in a the season of high water or Kimoariniku the trails become become muddy and make it hard to travel. During low season the Ã¢â¬Å"little streams that supply household needs during dry high water dry up, forcing people to lug river water in heavy, sloshing gourds up steep trails to their houses. And dry spells occur of long enough duration that crops in well-drained fields begin to wilt under the intense sun and Matsigenkas anxiously watch the skies for welcome signs of rainÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 34). The second need of the Matsigenka people is a latrine. Johnson mentions in his book that a house did have a latrine but most of the people would use strips of land where brush or cane grow to defecate (Johnson, 1999, p. 207). Ã¢â¬Å"These are preferred areas for urination and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s defecation. Adults are fastidious about defecation, however, and prefer whenever possible to refrain until they are at the edge of an old garden or out foraging in the forestÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 207). By having effective latrines they can ensure proper sanitation, the prevention of infectious diseases, and help keep their drinking water safe and clean. The Matsigenka are disgusted by feces (itiga), not only of other people but of any animal. The feces of toddlers, not yet toilet trained, are quickly collected into a leaf and disposed ofÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 208). The Matsigenka do try to maintain good health but they do not have the proper tools and means to make sure they do not develop any infectious diseases. They try to locate their homes in areas where a family is not living upstream from their location, this ensures that the water will not be contaminated by urination or feces. They have standards of cleanliness to which they adhere, and they respond to injury and illness with all the tools at their command. But their technology for dealing with health threats, and particularly with infectious diseases, is of limited effectivenessÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 431). Johnson notes that they do not go around with dirt all over them and smelling bad. They usually sit on the dirt floor with a mat, wash themselves daily, wash their garments daily, and wash their hands before preparing food (Johnson, 1999, p. 431). They also make sure that any waste or garbage is thrown away from their homes and in a designated area. Ã¢â¬Å"But efforts at hygiene are in a sense a losing battle in Shimaa. In addition to parasites, infections pass freely between members of a household or hamlet because of the continual affectionate touching and sharing between themÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 434). The third need for the Matsigenka is the prevention of infanticide. Ã¢â¬Å"A small but significant proportion of women, again perhaps one in ten, contemplate killing their infants rather than raise them. Men may have attitudes in the matter, and may promote infanticide if they believe another man is the father, but it is primarily the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s decision and her actionÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 81). Johnson discusses that some women feel the need to kill their infant because they have been unable to stop it from crying after a few days. Not everyone in the hamlet feels that infanticide is right but most do feel that it is the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s choice. Ã¢â¬Å"The general belief is that troublesome children should be bathed in hot water, not given up onÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 82). There is a need of prevention not only with the mother but also with those closest to the mother. Some of the mothers were told by others to kill their babies, either because they needed them to continue working or because a co-wife told them they cannot raise children (Johnson, 1999, p. 82). Ã¢â¬Å"In the difficult choices of abortion and infanticide, the mother has the ultimate say and performs the act, even when her husband or parent tries to influence her decisionÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 82). The final need involves the MatsigenkaÃ¢â¬â¢s access to school and their participation in school. Education is important because it helps to increase income and knowledge which makes future generation better able to survive. Many Matsigenka people do not like the school communities because they involve being around people they do not know. Ã¢â¬Å"Although social relations are peaceful and courteous, in private there is a good deal of suspicion and accusation leveled against members of other hamletsÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 49). Other Matsigenka school communities besides Shimaa are much more integrated, visit each other more often, and trade goods (Johnson, 1999, p. 49). This is why it would be beneficial for all members of the community to be more open and involved in the school systems. With more students attending the school there is more opportunity to have better teachers and a better education. Discussing the proposed needs of the Matsigenka cannot happen without having a proposed development project to accompany each need. The first need discussed was drinking water and the access to it. To gain better access to drinking water the Matsigenka people need manually drilled wells to help secure their water and make it more accessible. By working with the school ommunities they could work to gain donations and funding through organizations to help manually drill wells for the people. While doing this, information could be explained to the different hamlets on the importance of boiling the water to prevent infectious disease. The second need for the Matsigenka is latrines. This is an important project because it helps to prevent disease and keep peo ple healthy through proper sanitation. Many places that use latrines collect the waste and transport it out to be processed for future use as compost. With MatsigenkaÃ¢â¬â¢s isolation and lack of roads and transport this makes this process very difficult. The project being proposed is to still use latrines but use biodegradable clay or stones to build it so that when the latrine fills up, it can still be used for farming in the future. Another possibility is to use good bacteria to help compost the human waste faster to help prevent the odor and flies from accumulating. When there is too much smell and flies people will prefer to defecate other places than the latrines. An additional way to cut down on the flies and smell is to install a type of sky light or vent that is at the top of the latrine. By building the latrine it will help sanitation and prevent water from being contaminated. While building the latrines it will be important to inform people in the community of the importance of not to defecating in the surrounding areas that they are living. To help keep infectious disease and bacteria from spreading it will be important to inform the community on the important of washing their hands after use of the latrine. The Matsigenka are already practicing good habits by avoid the areas of used for urination and defecation, so this would help in their transition to using latrines. The third proposed development project involves the prevention of infanticide. The Matsigenka people also practice abortions which are done before a child is born. This will not be a debate regarding whether or not abortion is right or wrong but rather a discussion on preventative measures to protect babies that are already born. Infanticide is usually used as a way to control the population or because of stressful parental situations. The community in Shimaa leaves the decision to the mother on whether or not to kill her infant. This is why it is important to inform the mother on etter ways to soothe a crying infant and ways to handle stresses regarding the infant. A project could be to implement awareness in the schools on how to handle infants and what are the options outside of infanticide for them and their infant. This is not a problem that could be change overnight. It may take many years of education and awareness to see the number of deaths decrease. The last proposed develo pment project is the need for more school communities and access to education. Education is incredibly powerful and when that knowledge is obtained it is something that cannot be taken away. Education for the Matsigenka people can mean opening up their communities to more opportunities to trade and increase their incomes. With more income they can afford to have stronger and more functional housing. More income can also mean better access to medicines and clinics so illnesses can be treated early. Ã¢â¬Å"Attraction to the school, for trade goods, medicines, and a general sense of security, comes into conflict with many of their most basic preferences about where and how to live best. It is these conflicts that account for the aversion many Matsigenkas have toward school communitiesÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 197). The Matsigenka people fear outsiders because of their fear of illness and their history with outsiders bringing influenza to their communities. Ã¢â¬Å"Always a topic of conversation, news of a viral infection in the neighborhood travels quickly. Families scatter to their alternative residences. They will stay away until they believe the danger has passed and the locale is again safeÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1999, p. 198). This will be a hard part of the project to handle but with proper sanitation, clean water, and awareness of proper hygiene their fear of outsiders bringing infection can be lessened. The Matsigenka are unique in their want of isolation. Most communities are looking to make sellable goods or use of their land, so that they can reach more people to have the possibility of more income. With more people coming to the Amazon in search of natural gas and to exploit their resources the Matsigenka people are going to have to become more aware and take more preventative action with the outside world. This means they need more information to protect against infectious diseases and to keep their community in the changing world. References Johnson, A. , (1999). Families of the Forest. Retrieved from sscnet. ucla. edu/anthro/faculty/johnson/ethnography. html
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Fantastic Mr. Fox by Ronal Dahl - Essay Example These early instances of animals in literature history stood generally imbued with strong allegorical and religious significance. Ã¢â¬Å"Fantastic Mr. FoxÃ¢â¬ serves as criterions of moral didacticism by use of animals as instances for humans to avoid or follow (Dahl 70). Before we even encounter Mr. Fox, Roald introduces us to three loathsome farmers who go by names of Bunce, Bean and Boggis. Farmer Boggis keeps poultry and is a prime sample of obesity since he eats 3 whole chickens together with dumplings for each meal of the day daily. Farmer Bunce, conversely, has thousands of geese and ducks. He stands a pot - bellied dwarf and his diet consisting of doughnuts bloated with goose liver cream. He seems to continue with this regime although he has a persistent stomach ache and an ill temper because of it. Finally, there is Farmer Bean, a turkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s keeper and an apple orchard owner. He does not eat turkeys: he simply brews cider from the apples to drink the brew by the gall on. Bean is extremely thin but extraordinary brilliant. These 3 farmers are so contemptible that their local children sing a rhyme about their spitefulness when they come across them. It remains actually quite shocking that they manage to liaise with each other, considering their unpleasantness (Dahl 3). They must liaise, however, if they stand having at any chance at all, to outwit Mr. Fox. The Mr. Fox has a family of a wife and 4 little foxes to nourish, and each evening he asks his wife if she would like a duck, a goose, a turkey or a chicken. He then steals from the appropriate farm and takes back the chosen birdie. He is a cunning creature who approaches farms with the wind propelling towards him, so he can pick up the farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s scent lying to wait with a gun and quickly change his direction. The three farmers are furious and eventually agree they should hide proximal Mr. Fox hole to attack him once he emerges. The story continues their frustrated attempts to kill Mr. Fox alongside his family, who always succeed to dig further and escape the farmers. The foxes get horrified when tractors get brought to dig them out. However, Mr. Fox finds a plan to dig several tunnels along to each farm and steal enough foodstuff and cider for a celebration. Help gets solicited from other animals, of that get summoned to a great banquet (Dahl 13). Foxes stay often depicted as antiheroes in children's literature, Ã¢â¬Å"Chicken LikenÃ¢â¬ being a prime illustration. In 'Fantastic Mr. Fox, conversely, readers find themselves rooting for the foxes family in the aspect of the drastic actions taken by the 3 loathsome farmers. The story continues at a fast pace over chapters of about six pages each, and it is unlikely any child can have the chance to become bored. Quentin Blake delightful illustrations add hugely to bring the tale alive. The animals stay seen as life - size compared to the chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese. Mr. Fox wears a classy jacket and neck tie wh ereas Badger wears a waistcoat. Eyes and snouts are exaggerated, and all animals more have beaming, wholehearted smiles. The farmers, in contrast, are grumpy, glum souls. The illustration of 2 tractors with their headlights grinning makes them appear like two monsters with arrays of fangs, ready to gulp a creature that would get on their way (Sax 55). The tale remains intended for read - aloud tale for children aged 3